orofacial pain biomarkers 2017

jean-paul goulet

description

this book provides up-to-date information on all aspects of orofacial pain biomarkers. it opens by presenting background information on clinical phenotypes and the neurobiological substrates underlying chronic orofacial pain and by explaining the potential role of biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, and treatment of orofacial pain. the main section of the book examines the contribution of human and animal studies to the field of biomarkers for orofacial pain and discusses biomarkers for masticatory muscle pain, temporomandibular joint pain, neuropathic face pain, and autonomic nervous system involvement in trigeminal facial pain. the potential impacts of the immune system on orofacial pain biomarkers and candidate gene phenotypes with possible links to chronic orofacial pain conditions are also addressed, and differences and similarities between saliva and serum biomarkers for pain are explained as well. the final section covers research-related issues in assessment methods and statistical analyses used in evaluating biomarkers, identifies future challenges and suggests new directions in the field.show more

clinical cases in orofacial pain

malin ernberg

description

expand your knowledge and put it into practice with this unique, case-based guide clinical cases in orofacial pain is a valuable resource for undergraduate dental students as well as residents working towards board certification. individual cases cover temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache, neuropathic pain, dental pain, tooth wear, and dystonia. following the popular clinical cases series style, cases are presented with associated academic commentary, including background information, diagnostic criteria and fundamental points that might influence the diagnosis, treatment planning or management of the case. well-illustrated throughout, each chapter features self-assessment study questions to help foster independent learning. clinical cases in orofacial pain is an excellent primer for undergraduate dental students and an invaluable study guide for postgraduate students and residents. dental practitioners will also want to keep this unique, case-based guide as a ready reference in their working libraries.show more

manual of temporomandibular joint

b9789385891090shivlal m rawlani bds mds
co-author: sudhir s rawlani bds mds

this book is indeed is a beautiful compilation of development, anatomy, clinical examination, recent imaging techniques disorders and their management, pertaining to temporomandibular joint. the book also deals in regard to the various applied aspects of temporomandibular joint disorder and its considerations in dental specialty.
the another significant and praiseworthy aspect of the book is the extensive number of clinical photographs of normal components of temporomandibular joint and different temporomandibular joint pathologies, that have been incorporated, which are bound to facilitate the understanding of the issue in a genuine way.
the topic chosen for the book is significant, in as much as the various aspects with reference to the pathologies of temporomandibular joint, have been dealt with not only adequately, but also in a very lucid and free-flowing manner.
it is a book which can be said to be “handy, informative, readable” and capable of stating various facets of inquisitive mind and intellect alike.
key features
extensive compilation of literature amalgamated with the vast clinical experience of authors in the field of diagnosis and management of temporomandibular joint disorders over a period of 30 years

deals with all aspects of relevant disorders starting from the basic understanding of the anatomy, clinical examination along with conventional and advanced radiological procedures and various disorders and their management under one platform

contains lucid and self-explanatory content with many clinical and radiological photographs and diagrammatic representation

excellent for deep knowledge, which will help undergraduate and postgraduate dental and medical students of any speciality

includes all imaging techniques for temporomandibular region under single platform

explanation is in simple language

covers all the applied aspects of temporomandibular disorders

contains all the aspects of temporomandibular joint including applied aspect under single platform

helpful for students preparing for entrance examinations.

tmd and orthodontics 2015 a clinical guide for the orthodontist

sanjivan kandasamy

this evidence-based book, featuring contributions from world-renowned experts, discusses in detail the functional anatomy of the temporomandibular joint as well as the aetiology, diagnosis, treatment and medicolegal implications of patients with temporomandibular disorders (tmd).despite advances in our understanding of the aetiology of tmd and in developing current treatment rationales, a number of issues remain controversial. these include the extent to which the temporomandibular joint should be a central focus of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment, as well as the role that occlusion and malocclusion play in precipitating tmd symptoms. indeed, few subjects in dentistry and the specialty of orthodontics are open to as many interpretations or misinterpretations as tmd. this textbook provides clinical orthodontists with essential information and guidance that will assist them in understanding and effectively managing this complex multilayered problem. throughout, clear clinical guidelines are presented on the basis of current scientific and clinical evidence. tmd and orthodontics will be a highly valuable chairside resource for orthodontists everywhere.

contemporary management of temporomandibular joint disorders an issue of oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of north ameri

daniel perez
surgery for the internal derangement of the tmj is explored in this important issue in the oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics. articles will include: condylectomies in condylar hyperplasia of the tmj: are they necessary ; acute and chronic dislocation of the temporomandibular joint: what options do we have ; ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint: how do we treat it ; adjunct medical management for temporomandibular joint disorders: where are we going ; orthognathic surgery in the tmd patient: what happens later ; missing temporomandibular joint congenital conditions: when do we operate ; articular disc repositioning of the tmj: does it really work ; idiopathic condylar resorption of the temporomandibular joint: how do we stop it ; tmj surgical complications; connective tissue autoimmune disease: how does it affect the tmj and where are we going ; and more.

this item is non-returnable.

temporomandibular joint total joint replacement tmj tjr a comprehensive reference for researchers materials scientists and surgeons

mercuri, louis g. (ed.)

this is the first text that deals specifically with tmj tjr. each chapter is authored by either a basic science researcher or clinician known for their interest and expertise in this field. the text provides the reader with state-of-the-art analysis of all aspects of total temporomandibular joint replacement (tmj tjr), starting with cutting-edge evidence on the biomechanics of the tmj. the intriguing history of tmj tjr is presented to provide an understanding of why some prior tmj tjr devices failed and how what was learned from those failures has led to the improvements exhibited in present tmj tjr devices. expert chapters discuss both stock and custom designs, their indications and contraindications, primary operative techniques, combined tmj tjr and orthognathic surgical techniques, and the devices’ adaption for use as segmental or total mandibular replacement devices after ablative surgery. clinical outcomes and avoidance as well as management of complications are detailed. numerous helpful illustrations and radiographs are presented to assist readers in understanding and carrying out the described procedures. important evidence from both the orthopedic and tmj tjr literature relating to material sensitivity and mechanical wear will be reported. finally, the role bioengineered tissue may hold for the future of tmj tjr will be discussed.

handbook of research on computerized occlusal analysis technology applications in dental medicine

occlusal analysisdmd robert b. kerstein
modern medicine is changing drastically as new technologies emerge to transform the way in which patients are diagnosed, treated, and monitored. in particular, dental medicine is experiencing a tremendous shift as new digital innovations are integrated into dental practice.

the handbook of research on computerized occlusal analysis technology applications in dental medicine explores the use of digital tools in dentistry, including their evolution as well as evidence-based research on the benefits of technological tools versus non-digital occlusal indicators. comprised of current research on clinical applications and technologies, this publication is ideal for use by clinicians, educators, and upper-level students in dentistry.

 

wheelers dental anatomy physiology and occlusion 10th edition

by stanley j. nelson
now in full color, this essential text features a visually oriented presentation of dental anatomy, physiology, and occlusion — the foundation for all of the dental sciences. coverage includes discussions of clinical considerations, dentitions, pulp formation, and the sequence of eruptions. in addition to detailed content on dental macromorphology and evidence-based chronologies of the human dentitions, this edition also includes flash cards, an updated companion cd-rom, and evolve resources that make this text a comprehensive resource for dental anatomy.

  • understand the standards of tooth formation and apply them to clinical presentations with the development and eruption of the teeth chapter.
  • focus on the functions and esthetics of disorders you’ll encounter in daily practice with content on tmj and muscle disorders.
  • get a concise review of dentition development from in-utero to adolescence to adulthood with the appendix of tooth morphology.
  • all line drawings and essential photos have been replaced with full-color pieces.
  • sharpen your knowledge with interactive learning tools and expanded content on the companion cd-rom including study questions, 360-degree rotational tooth viewing, and animations.
  • test your knowledge on labeling, tooth numbering, and tooth type traits and prepare for board exams with flash cards.
  • find even more study opportunities on the evolve website with a powerpoint presentation, flash cards, a test bank, and labeling exercises.

orofacial pain a clinicians guide

by nalini vadivelu (editor), amarender vadivelu (editor), alan david kaye (editor)

because diagnosing orofacial pain can be a challenge, the book describes the appropriate history-taking methods, detailed examinations, and relevant tests that will help clinicians to work through the differential diagnosis.effective medical, surgical, and behavioral approaches are presented, and the importance of a multimodal approach is consistently emphasized throughout the book. the target audience includes pain physicians, anesthesiologists, dentists, neurologists, nurse practitioners, and physician’s assistants.

statistical approaches to orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders research

by daniele manfredini, rosa arboretti, luca guarda nardini, eleonora carrozzo, luigi salmaso

this book covers some biostatistical methods and several case studies useful to interpret and analyze dental research in the areas of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. it will guide practitioners in these fields who would like to interpret research findings or find examples on the design of clinical investigations. after an introduction dealing with the basic issues, the central sections of the textbook are dedicated to the different types of investigations in sight of specific goals researchers may have. the final section contains a recent approach based on nonparametric permutation tests which can be adopted in many practical situations. the field of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders is emerging as one of the most critical areas of clinical research in dentistry. due to the complexity of clinical pictures, the multifactorial etiology, and the importance of psychosocial factors in all aspects of the tmd practice, clinicians often find it hard to appraise their modus operandi, and researchers must constantly increase their knowledge in epidemiology and medical statistics. indeed, proper methodological designs are fundamental to reaching high levels of internal and external validity of findings in this specific area.

evidence based occlusal management for temporomandibular disorders

evidence-based occlusal management for temporomandibular disordersby kengo torii

current mainstream treatments for temporomandibular disorders (tmds) are mainly conservative therapies. however, these conservative treatments are symptomatic treatments, not causal treatments. therefore, the patients with severe symptoms have not been completely relieved.
evidence-based occlusal management for temporomandibular disorders is a concise e-lecture which covers the following points:
1. when do the signs or symptoms of tmd emerge
2. should the signs or symptoms be left untreated
3. when should the treatment start
4. how should the occlusal discrepancy be examined
5. how should occlusion at the bpop (bite plate-induced occlusal position) (muscular contact position) be equilibrated
the e-lecture also demonstrates a positive outcome using causal treatment based on occlusal equilibration in the bpop based on the evidence of a relationship between occlusal discrepancy and tmd. therefore, this e-book shares insightful, evidence-based clinical data with interested readers such as dental clinicians and researchers around the world.

bells oral and facial pain 7th edition

bell’s oral and facial painby jeffrey p. okeson

pain, especially chronic pain, is a major health care problem, a fact that has precipitated a recent dramatic expansion in pain-related research efforts. this revised edition of dr welden bell’s classic text has been updated to incorporate the latest findings from these studies, including advanced understanding of the neurophysiology and central processing of pain and the resulting changes to diagnostic, classification, and treatment guidelines. to assist clinicians in the difficult and often complicated task of managing patients suffering from oral and facial pain, this textbook provides documented information concerning pain and pain behavior so that one may better understand what pain is, how it behaves, and how it might best be managed; develops a useful classification of orofacial pain disorders; offers practical diagnostic criteria by which the different orofacial pain disorders can be identified on a clinical level; and suggests guidelines for the effective management of patients who suffer from pain in the region of the mouth and face. the concepts and techniques discussed are supplemented with case reports as well as new, full-color photographs and illustrations to help the clinician better understand orofacial pain disorders and how to treat them effectively.

orofacial pain guidelines for assessment diagnosis and management 5th edition

orofacial pain guidelines for assessment, diagnosis, and management, 5th editionby reny de leeuw & gary klasser

the aaop guidelines for assessment, diagnosis, and management of orofacial pain is an invaluable resource for all health care professionals who evaluate and treat patients with orofacial pain and face the daunting task of “keeping up with the literature” in the rapidly emerging arena of pain management in clinical practice. this new edition continues to emphasize evidence-based knowledge and, for the first time, offers a summary of key points at the end of each chapter to reinforce reader understanding. other important changes include an entirely new chapter on sleep and its relationship to pain and well-being; new imaging guidelines for the diagnosis of headache, tmd, and neuropathic pain; a new section on dysesthesias related to neuropathic pain; comprehensive descriptions of sunct/suna in the chapter devoted to primary headache disorders; and recommendations for quantitative sensory testing, narcotic agreement, and brief screening questionnaires used in patient assessment. most important, the differential diagnosis and tmd chapters reflect the recommendations of the long-awaited rdc/tmd taxonomy, which will have a significant impact on clinical practice.

treatment of tmds bridging the gap between advances in research and clinical patient management

treatment of tmdsby charles s greene & daniel m. laskin

this totally new book is focused on answering a single broad question: what is currently happening in various research areas that will be clinically applicable to the management of temporomandibular disorders (tmds) in the near future clearly, much of the information discovered about musculoskeletal disorders through the application of new research tools and innovative experimental designs can be directly or indirectly applied to the tmj. however, many dental clinicians are unaware of this type of information because it is presented mainly in medical publications or nonclinical scientific journals. this book bridges the gap for the clinician, applying the latest scientific research to the clinical treatment of tmds, with focus on the anatomy, biochemistry, neurophysiology, and psychology of the common disorders. each chapter discusses present knowledge in the particular field before explaining how it may apply to the diagnosis and treatment of tmd patients. in addition, every chapter provides an overview of new research in the field and its potential for changing future patient care. covering such clinically relevant topics as the relation of abnormal joint function to joint pathology, the prediction of treatment responsiveness, how sleep disorders affect tmj and facial pain, the role of comorbid conditions in pain response and management, and the evolving field of pharmacotherapeutics, this book is sure to transform the way clinicians think about tmds and how they approach tmd treatment.

orofacial pain from basic science to clinical management 2nd edition

orofacial pain from basic science to clinical managementby barry j. sessle & gilles j. lavigne

this revised and expanded edition highlights the importance of understanding the biologic and psychologic pain mechanisms to prepare clinicians who treat patients presenting with a variety of pain symptoms. in addition to presenting objective definitions and descriptions of pain and its physical effects, the authors include evidence-based research on how the pain experience may be influenced by genetics, gender, or individual psychosocial and health histories. extending well beyond basic toothache and tmds, this book covers pathologic conditions of surrounding orofacial structures and nonodontogenic pain disorders that may manifest as orofacial pain as well, including new chapters on headache and orofacial pain–related movement disorders. chapters on management guide clinicians on how to develop practical and compassionate treatment plans based on logical evaluation methods, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate pharmacologic treatment, or how to decide when referral to other health care providers is warranted. a series of case studies demonstrates the effective application of this information to clinical situations.

orofacial pain guidelines for assessment diagnosis and management 4th edition

orofacial pain guidelines for assessment, diagnosis, and management, 4th editionby reny de leeuw & gary klasser

completely revised and updated, this new version of the aaop guidelines educates readers on the procedures of evidence-based assessment, diagnosis, and management of orofacial pain conditions based on the latest scientific knowledge. while the structure of the previous version has been maintained, this book offers evidence-based concepts where available and reflects many significant changes in the field of orofacial pain. for example, an entire chapter is now devoted to cervical disorders to emphasize the close relationships between some orofacial pain disorders and cervical pain disorders and to cast greater attention on their differences and similarities. because they constitute a major part of orofacial pain and affect so many, temporomandibular disorders are the primary topic of several chapters as well as a major focus of the chapter of classification. other important topics covered in detail include neuropathic pain conditions, odontogenic pain, and mucogingival disorders. this long-awaited edition arms clinicians with new insights and procedures for assessing, diagnosing, and managing patients who present with symptoms of orofacial pain.

bells orofacial pains the clinical management of orofacial pain 6th edition

bell orofacial painby jeffrey p. okeson

updated to reflect the latest research in orofacial pain, this revised edition of dr welden bell’s classic text is designed to assist the practicing dentist in managing orofacial pain disorders, from diagnosis to treatment selection. it presents an updated classification system for orofacial pain disorders, especially in the complicated area of neuropathic pain conditions, and describes the differential diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for each classification. many new photographs illustrate the concepts and techniques that are discussed, and a new section on injection techniques for the diagnosis and management of orofacial pain has been added. the book also includes 35 case reports to help the clinician better understand orofacial pain disorders and how to treat them effectively.

applied occlusion enhanced version

applied occlusion (enhanced version)by robert wassell

adopts a clinical approach to understanding occlusion and demystifies it for dentists and students. an accompanying narrated dvd provides stunning 3-d animations that clarify the effects of jaw movement. comprehensive clinical videos demonstrate the process of investigating and managing real-life occlusal problems.

head face and neck pain science evaluation and management an interdisciplinary approach

by noshir mehta (editor), george e. maloney (editor), dhirendra s. bana (editor), steven j. scrivani (editor)
the most comprehensive guide ever created for head, face, and neck (hfn) pain, this multi-author book offers the very latest research and therapeutic information on this important and hugely interdisciplinary topic. a unique professional reference, it is also easy to use as a textbook within diverse educational institutions and programs. content adheres strictly to the latest established guidelines for pain management in the medical and dental professions.

manual of temporomandibular disorders

by

edward f. wright, dds, ms, master of the academy of general dentistry, diplomate of the american board of orofacial pain

book description

manual of temporomandibular disorders is a four-color, softcover handbook of information on temporomandibular disorders, an array of medical and dental conditions that affect the temporomandibular joint (tmj), masticatory muscles, and contiguous structures. the book will provide evidence-based, clinically practical information that allows dentists to diagnose tmd accurately, rule out disorders that mimic tmd (that is, make a differential diagnosis), and provide effective therapy for most patients. this title offers comprehensive coverage in a compact package. the book’s tone is conversational, with a focus on solving tmd problems at chairside. the author’s crisp, engaging writing style allows the clinician to find precise answers quickly, without wading through a morass of detail.

editorial reviews

review

“this is a valuable addition to the library of texts on the subject of aetiology, diagnosis and management of temporomandibular disorders.the 19 chapters are set out in a reader friendly way and include ‘quick consult’ practical information points and ‘focal points of factual information. ‘technical tips’ suggest ways of handling some diverse clinical situations and guide the reader towards appreciating the significance of symptoms deriving from different sources.the book is well illustrated in colour and will be of interest to those who want to keep up to date with current thoughts on tmd, practitioners who have a special interest in the subject and to all dentists who wish to expand their knowledge.”
british dental journal“the major point of interest to the reader is that the book is clearly and distinctly organized in the manner in which a general dental practitioner would assess treat, and manage a patient with tmd in his or her dental office.the author has demonstrated in this book a thorough understanding of tmd and treatment approaches for the dental practitioner. what makes the book unique is the systematically organized approach with which the chapters are presented. the approach, along with a straightforward writing style, makes the book very easy to read and understand. in addition, there are numerous illustration and figures to assist the reader; the printing and binding are of a high quality.

this book is one of the most straightforward, systematic approaches to understanding and treating tmd that i have read. i found it easy to read and understand and believe it would be so for the general dental practitioner.

the book would be an excellent text for dental students studying tmd and is essential for postgraduate programs, especially aegd and gpr programs. it is a must reference for all general dental practitioners to have in their practice. i highly recommend the book without reservations.”

journal of dental education

from the back cover

this manual is designed to enhance the dentist’s ability to efficiently evaluate and treat patients with temporomandibular disorder (tmd). manual of temporomandibular disorders aims to integrate the scientific literature, clinical trials and clinical experiences into an effective strategy for the dentist. for ease of synthesis, only clinically relevant aspects for the vast majority of temporomandibular disorders are covered. reader friendly and easy-to-use, the book is structured with five major parts: initial evaluation, common acute tmd conditions and treatments, occlusal appliance therapy, multi-disciplinary treatment, and case scenarios.the author’s considerable expertise in managing tmd patients has been condensed to provide a methodological approach to assessment and treatment of this challenging and diverse disorder. to support the organization of the clinical regimen, useful appendices are collected at the back of the book, and are also available on-line. these include an initial patient questionnaire along with sample records and consultations.features include:

  • frequently asked questions
  • quick consults, technical tips and focal points
  • coverage of disorders that mimic tmd and identification of factors which warrant referral
  • color photographs and line drawings

as a practical resource, this book is invaluable for students and practitioners working towards the resolution of tmd.

customer reviews

this is the best tmd book i have ever read!, march 11, 2005

it is an outstanding evidence-based clinical guide explicitly recommending how dentists can diagnose and best treat the multitude of variances we see among tmd patients. general dentists can proficiently treat the great majority of tmd patients and dr. wright warns to consider referral for the specific situations in which the patient’s condition is beyond most general dentist’s expertise. i highly recommend all general dentists read this book!

very handy, september 13, 2005

very well organized, such that finding information is very easy. the content is very applicable and useful. four starts just because i find the “quick consult” points unnecessary as the text is quite well put together and the information is easy to find – just picky, i guess.

product details

  • paperback: 338 pages
  • publisher: wiley-blackwell; 1 edition (february 1, 2005)
  • language: english
  • isbn-10: 0813807522
  • isbn-13: 978-0813807522
  • product dimensions: 9.9 x 6.9 x 0.8 inches
  • shipping weight: 1.8 pounds

occlusion and clinical practice an evidence based approach

by

iven klineberg, professor, westmead centre of oral health, australia;

robert jagger, senior lecturer and consultant in restorative dentistry, department of adult dental health, dental school, cardiff, uk

book description

an understanding of occlusion, the way in which the opposing surfaces of upper and lower teeth make contact, is fundamental to the practice of dentistry – especially to individual dental sub-specialties such as orthodontics and prosthodontics. this unique book offers an accessible look at the best available evidence on occlusion and its relevance for management of dental patients.
  • evidence-based information provides an excellent introduction to the subject of occlusion.
  • unique approach focuses on the relevance of occlusion to the individual disciplines of dentistry such as orthodontics and prosthodontics.
  • treatment suggestions emphasize interdisciplinary management of the occlusion.
  • chapter authors are internationally recognized authorities.

editorial reviews

review

“…a text aimed at students and practitioners alike…the writing is wonderfully clear and relevant, which is well complemented by good diagrams and mosr interestingly of all, clearly labelled series of photographs which explain procedures clearly. this is a fine first edition and certainly fills a gap in the market for this kind of well-researched text.” student, mad magazine – barts and the london students’ association, june 2004

customer reviews

occlusion and clinical practice, june 1, 2009

it is a good book when i just touching the “foreword”. as its mention, it is an elegant, carefully crafted textbook. i will keep on reading until the end. occlusion is a very special topic to dentistry. few books talk about this topic. that means it is attractive, or otherwise you will feel boring of reading it.

product details

  • paperback: 160 pages
  • publisher: wright; 1 edition (april 2, 2004)
  • language: english
  • isbn-10: 0723610924
  • isbn-13: 978-0723610922
  • product dimensions: 9.6 x 7.3 x 0.4 inches
  • shipping weight: 11.2 ounces

color atlas of temporomandibular joint surgery

by

peter d. quinn, dmd, md, vice dean for prof
essional services, perelman school of medicine; senior vice president, university of pennsylvania health system

book description

this brilliant color atlas describes a range of surgical procedures from open joint surgery to total joint replacement. it deals with one of the most vexing problems for oral and maxillofacial surgeons selecting the proper surgical option for patients who have exhausted all conservative methods of dealing with tmj pain and dysfunction. the book’s major focus is on internal derangement, trauma, and management of benign and malignant disorders. color atlas of temporomandibular joint surgery illustrates the technical aspects of various surgical procedures on the temporomandibular joint, focusing on open joint surgical procedures. potential surgical modalities explored include: arthroscopy, meniscal repair, and the use of autogenous and alloplastic materials in joint reconstruction.
written by an authoritative, highly respected surgeon whose surgical skills are in great demand. presents the basics of etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of tmj disorders to simplify often complex problems. surgical procedures are illustrated in a step-by-step format to take the surgeon through the procedure in a manner that he will be able to duplicate when he performs the surgery. hundreds of vivid color photographs were created with painstaking care to demonstrate a clean surgical field, free of blood, so that intraoperative views and anatomic structures are readily visualized. includes a separate chapter on orthognathic surgery and its related surgical complications to provide essential information on the all-too-common complications of orthognathic surgery. includes a collection of treatment flow sheets (algorithms) for each possible kind of temporomandibular joint surgery to clarify the decision-making process involved in diagnosing and treating all varieties of tmj disorders. features an excellent collection of computer-generated art maximum clarity in illustrating crucial procedures.

product details

  • hardcover: 288 pages
  • publisher: mosby (november 1, 1997)
  • language: english
  • isbn-10: 0815145403
  • isbn-13: 978-0815145400
  • product dimensions: 11.1 x 8.7 x 0.9 inches
  • shipping weight: 2.7 pounds